Balloon angioplasty and stent placement are interventional procedures used to treat coronary artery disease.
Balloon angioplasty, also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), involves threading a thin, flexible catheter through an artery in the groin or wrist and into the blocked or narrowed coronary artery. A small balloon at the end of the catheter is then inflated to widen the artery and improve blood flow to the heart muscle. This can relieve symptoms such as chest pain (angina) and reduce the risk of a heart attack.
Stent placement is often performed after balloon angioplasty to help keep the artery open. A stent is a small mesh tube that is inserted into the artery after the balloon is inflated. The stent remains in place, providing support to the artery and preventing it from narrowing again.
CABG stands for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, which is a surgical procedure used to treat blocked or narrowed coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle.
During CABG surgery, a surgeon takes a healthy blood vessel, usually from the patient’s chest or leg, and grafts it onto the blocked or narrowed coronary artery, bypassing the blocked area and restoring blood flow to the heart. The graft may be either a vein or an artery, depending on the location and extent of the blockage.
CABG surgery is usually reserved for patients who have severe blockages in multiple coronary arteries or who have not responded well to other treatments, such as medication or lifestyle changes. The surgery can relieve symptoms of chest pain, reduce the risk of heart attack and other complications, and improve overall heart function and quality of life.
As with any surgery, there are risks associated with CABG, such as bleeding, infection, damage to the heart or other organs, and complications related to anesthesia. However, these risks are generally low, and the benefits of the surgery usually outweigh the risks in most cases. Recovery from CABG surgery usually takes several weeks to months, and patients are typically closely monitored and given medications to manage pain, prevent infection, and reduce the risk of blood clots.